How the MBTI® Works
Applications of the MBTI®
Taking the MBTI®
MBTI® Certification
Certification Programmes
Buying Instruments and Books
Sample Reports

How the MBTI® Works
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®) is the world's most widely used personality indicator, with over 2 million people taking it annually. It is the pre-eminent instrument for giving you a deep understanding of yourself and others. It explains how differences between people can be observed and described. It therefore gives you very clear and obvious advice on building better interpersonal relationships, building an effective team dynamic and developing your leadership style. The MBTI® is therefore the choice of the world's leading management trainers, leadership coaches and employee counsellors.

It is a forced choice, self-report, personality questionnaire used to measure and describe people's preferences for taking in information, making decisions and orienting their lives. It is based on Carl Jung's theory of perception and judgment and classifies people into 16 broad personality Types. The MBTI® tool provides a simple way of seeing how people are alike and how they differ. You are invited to celebrate your own strengths then value and respect others for the different gifts they bring to life and work.

The MBTI® instrument helps determine an individual's preferences on four dichotomies

A person either prefers

Extraversion - Prefers to draw energy from the world of activity, people and things



Introversion - Prefers to draw energy from the inner world of reflections, feelings and ideas


Sensing - Prefers to focus on information gained from the five senses and on practical applications



Intuition - Prefers to focus on patterns, connections and possible meanings


Thinking - Prefers to base decisions on logic and objective analysis of cause and effect



Feeling - Prefers to base decisions on a valuing process, considering what is important to people


Judging - Likes a planned, organised approach to life and prefers to have things organised



Perceiving - Likes a flexible, spontaneous approach and prefers to keep options open

The various combinations of these preferences result in 16 personality "Types", each associated with a unique set of behavioural characteristics and values, which provide an excellent starting point for leadership and team development.

Applications of the MBTI®
Compared with other psychometric instruments of similar quality the MBTI® is remarkably good value for money , and is therefore used extensively in organisations in the following areas:

  • Leadership development – identifying leadership style and developing management skills
  • Team building and team development – improving communication, enhancing team problem solving and building team synergy
  • Organisational change – developing resilience to change and guiding change management initiatives
  • Persuading and influencing – developing selling and influencing skills
  • Coaching and giving feedback – identifying motivators for different individuals and motivating appropriately
  • Resolving conflict – improving the quality of relationships, improving communication and removing misunderstandings.

For specialist programmes using the MBTI® please click Leadership Programmes and Management Development Programmes.

Please note. The MBTI® cannot be used for selection interviews. Although there is a clear link between Type preferences and attraction to particular occupations, the MBTI® instrument does not measure skills and abilities. Further, it does not have a "lie detector" embedded into it. However the MBTI® is often used in assessment and development centres where candidates will be given extensive feedback from a range of psychometric instruments.

Taking the MBTI®
You may choose either the MBTI® Step I or Step II. The Step I gives you your basic MBTI® Type. However more senior groups usually chose the MBTI® Step II , as this builds on the basic Type to add a personalised report. Step I is known as the MBTI® Form M, and Step II is known as the MBTI® Form Q.

Form M (Step I)
Form M is available in paper format (self scorable is the most popular) and online.

The advantage of the self-scorable is that it allows the trainer to ensure that you get into the right mindset before completing the questionnaire. The advantage of the online system is that it saves 30 – 40 minutes of programme time, and can produce a range of reports.

The Form M is used with the booklet "Introduction to Type® ". This gives a comprehensive description of all 16 Types and a clear description of how you can apply your new self-awareness and awareness of others using the MBTI®.

To help you become more expert with MBTI® applications there is a range of excellent booklets. These are written to cover the key workplace applications including teams and leadership, communication, coaching, change, selling, stress, motivation and retention, careers and conflict.

Further if you take the Form M online you can chose a selection of reports which give you overview details in certain areas covered by the booklets shown above. The complete range of reports is shown in the CPPAP™ Product Directory. You can also download certain sample reports from our Sample Reports. The most widely used are the Career Report, Organisations Report and Team Report.

Form Q (Step II)
Form Q is taken online. It has 144 questions and produces your basic MBTI® Type plus additional data which describes your unique characteristics. This is shown in a personalised 18 page report called the Expanded Interpretive Report (EIR). The Step II is essential for senior people who will need a more "expert" understanding of their own Type. Particularly the Step II helps explain specific areas of behaviour which may be "out of preference." The report shows 20 such "facets" (5 for each dichotomy). For example, the Extraversion – Introversion dichotomy contains the following five facets:

  • initiating – receiving
  • expressive – contained
  • gregarious – intimate
  • active – reflective
  • enthusiastic – quiet

Further the EIR gives you very specific recommendations for applications in communication, change management, decision making and conflict management.

If you wish to download an EIR sample report please click Sample Reports.

MBTI® Certification
MDS offers certification in a 4 day Step I and Step II certification programme in Hong Kong (English or Cantonese) and Beijing and Taipei (Mandarin). If you have a first degree (in any subject) you are eligible to apply for the MBTI® certification programme.

MDS has become the centre of excellence for the MBTI® in Hong Kong and Beijing over the last 8 years. During this time we have trained certified MBTI® users for more than 50 of the top global companies operating in the region including:

Prudential, San Miguel, AIG, HSBC, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Hewlett-Packard, Hutchison Ports, Horwath, AXA, Marriott, Analogue Engineering, Air Products Asia, ABB, AstraZeneca, CSFB, Nike, AC Nielsen, Mattel, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, Morgan Stanley, Siemens, Citibank, Swire Beverages, PCCW, Microsoft, Ogilvy and Mather, Intel, Philips Electronics, Procter and Gamble and Motorola.

For details of how to enroll for an MBTI® Certification course please click Certification Programmes.